WikiTutorialsFPS

Building a first-person shooter game


What's in this tutorial

This tutorial assumes you already know how CraftStudio works overall. If this is your first game, consider checking out the introduction and starting with a more beginner-oriented tutorial.

If you're not familiar with Lua, the textual scripting language used in CraftStudio, the Scripting Reference has a couple links to good starting tutorials!

We'll be building a generic single-player first-person shooter, mostly focusing on writing the player control script.


Locking the mouse inside the game window

To allow the player to look around with the mouse, we'll first want to hide and lock the mouse pointer with CS.Input.LockMouse(). We can unlock it when the player presses the escape key using CS.Input.UnlockMouse() coupled with a chcek on CS.Input.WasButtonJustPressed().

-- Script version 1: Locking & unlocking the mouse

function Behavior:Awake()
    CS.Input.LockMouse()
end

function Behavior:Update()
    -- NOTE: Make sure to define an "Escape" game button in your project's Administration tab
    if CS.Input.WasButtonJustPressed( "Escape" ) then
        CS.Input.UnlockMouse()
    end
end

This script should be placed on your main camera game object.


Looking around

We can use the values returned by CS.Input.GetMouseDelta() to adjust the camera's rotation.

We'll want to lock the rotation around the X axis (for looking up/down) to a reasonable range to prevent the camera from making a full turn. This can be achieved by clamping the value with math.clamp( value, min, max ).

Here's our updated camera script:

-- Script version 2: Looking around with the mouse

function Behavior:Awake()
    CS.Input.LockMouse()

    self.angleX = 0
    self.angleY = 0

    self.rotationSpeed = 0.2
end

function Behavior:Update()
    -- Allow unlocking the mouse with Escape
    if CS.Input.WasButtonJustPressed( "Escape" ) then
        CS.Input.UnlockMouse()
    end

    -- Rotate the camera when the mouse moves around
    local mouseDelta = CS.Input.GetMouseDelta()

    -- Horizontal mouse delta corresponds to a rotation around the Y axis (left / right)
    self.angleY = self.angleY - self.rotationSpeed * mouseDelta.x
    -- Vertical mouse delta corresponds to a rotation around the X axis (up / down)
    self.angleX = self.angleX - self.rotationSpeed * mouseDelta.y

    -- Clamp X rotation to the -45° / 45° range
    self.angleX = math.clamp( self.angleX, -45, 45 )

    self.gameObject.transform:SetLocalEulerAngles( Vector3:New( self.angleX, self.angleY, 0 ) )
end

Moving forward / backward

In order to move around with collisions (using the physics engine), we'll need to separate the character from the camera. This will allow us to have a physics component on the character itself while the camera can look wherever it wants.

Here's what your scene setup might look like:

Character and camera scene setup

Notice that the script was moved from the camera to the character and the character's capsule body had its rotation frozen on all 3 axes.

Instead of directly modifying the character's orientation, we'll be setting the child camera game object's orientation:

-- Script version 3: Using a separate camera game object

function Behavior:Awake()
    CS.Input.LockMouse()

    -- ADDED: Store a reference to the camera game object
    self.cameraGO = self.gameObject:FindChild( "Camera" )

    self.angleX = 0
    self.angleY = 0

    self.rotationSpeed = 0.2
end

function Behavior:Update()
    -- Allow unlocking the mouse with Escape
    if CS.Input.WasButtonJustPressed( "Escape" ) then
        CS.Input.UnlockMouse()
    end

    -- Rotate the camera when the mouse moves around
    local mouseDelta = CS.Input.GetMouseDelta()

    self.angleY = self.angleY - self.rotationSpeed * mouseDelta.x
    self.angleX = self.angleX - self.rotationSpeed * mouseDelta.y
    self.angleX = math.clamp( self.angleX, -45, 45 )

    -- CHANGED: Set the camera's transform
    self.cameraGO.transform:SetLocalEulerAngles( Vector3:New( self.angleX, self.angleY, 0 ) )
end

Feel free to add a map with a static body component as well as various obstacles.

In order to move our character around, we'll be setting its linear velocity.

-- Script version 4: Moving forward / backward

function Behavior:Awake()
    CS.Input.LockMouse()

    self.cameraGO = self.gameObject:FindChild( "Camera" )

    self.angleX = 0
    self.angleY = 0

    self.rotationSpeed = 0.2
    self.walkSpeed = 2.0
end

function Behavior:Update()
    -- Allow unlocking the mouse with Escape
    if CS.Input.WasButtonJustPressed( "Escape" ) then
        CS.Input.UnlockMouse()
    end

    -- Rotate the camera when the mouse moves around
    local mouseDelta = CS.Input.GetMouseDelta()

    self.angleY = self.angleY - self.rotationSpeed * mouseDelta.x
    self.angleX = self.angleX - self.rotationSpeed * mouseDelta.y
    self.angleX = math.clamp( self.angleX, -45, 45 )

    self.cameraGO.transform:SetLocalEulerAngles( Vector3:New( self.angleX, self.angleY, 0 ) )

    -- Moving around

    -- Compute our new velocity based on the Vertical game control axis
    local vertical = CS.Input.GetAxisValue( "Vertical" )
    local newVelocity = Vector3:Forward() * vertical * self.walkSpeed

    -- We need to transform the velocity from character space to global space before applying it
    local characterOrientation = Quaternion:FromAxisAngle( Vector3:Up(), self.angleY )
    newVelocity = Vector3.Transform( newVelocity, characterOrientation )

    -- Keep the current Y velocity value so as to not mess with gravity
    newVelocity.y = self.gameObject.physics:GetLinearVelocity().y

    self.gameObject.physics:SetLinearVelocity( newVelocity )
end

Strafing

No FPS movement is complete without the ability to move left or right, also known as strafing.

-- Script version 5: Moving around (now with strafing)

function Behavior:Awake()
    CS.Input.LockMouse()

    self.cameraGO = self.gameObject:FindChild( "Camera" )

    self.angleX = 0
    self.angleY = 0

    self.rotationSpeed = 0.2
    self.walkSpeed = 2.0
end

function Behavior:Update()
    -- Allow unlocking the mouse with Escape
    if CS.Input.WasButtonJustPressed( "Escape" ) then
        CS.Input.UnlockMouse()
    end

    -- Rotate the camera when the mouse moves around
    local mouseDelta = CS.Input.GetMouseDelta()

    self.angleY = self.angleY - self.rotationSpeed * mouseDelta.x
    self.angleX = self.angleX - self.rotationSpeed * mouseDelta.y
    self.angleX = math.clamp( self.angleX, -45, 45 )

    self.cameraGO.transform:SetLocalEulerAngles( Vector3:New( self.angleX, self.angleY, 0 ) )

    -- Moving around
    local vertical = CS.Input.GetAxisValue( "Vertical" )
    local horizontal = CS.Input.GetAxisValue( "Horizontal" )

    -- Walking forward / backward
    local newVelocity = Vector3:Forward() * vertical * self.walkSpeed
    -- Strafing
    newVelocity = newVelocity - Vector3:Left() * horizontal * self.walkSpeed

    local characterOrientation = Quaternion:FromAxisAngle( Vector3:Up(), self.angleY )
    newVelocity = Vector3.Transform( newVelocity, characterOrientation )
    newVelocity.y = self.gameObject.physics:GetLinearVelocity().y

    self.gameObject.physics:SetLinearVelocity( newVelocity )
end

Jumping

(to be done)


Shooting

(to be done)

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